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دکتر اريک برن پدر تحليل رفتار متقابل

امتیاز کاربران

ستاره غیر فعالستاره غیر فعالستاره غیر فعالستاره غیر فعالستاره غیر فعال
 

دکتر اريک برن پدر تحليل رفتار متقابل
نويسنده :سعيد عبدالملکي

 

دکتر « اريک برن » از برجسته ترين و مشهورترين روان پزشکان و پر فروش ترين نويسندگان معاصر است که در سال 1910 در شهر « مونترآل » کانادا متولد شد. او در زمينه ي روان شناسي روابط بين فردي ، نظريه اي تحت عنوان «تحليل رفتار متقابل » ارائه داد که بسيار مورد توجه قرار گرفت و توسط ديگر روان شناسان ، بسط و گسترش پيدا کرد .
پدر او يک پزشک عمومي و مادرش نويسنده و ويرايشگري حرفه اي بود . در سال 1935 «اريک » که پدرش را به علت بيماري سل از دست داده بود ، با تشويق مادرش تصميم به ادامه ي راه پدر گرفت و براي تحصيل در دانشکده ي پزشکي ، راهي دانشگاه شد . با اتمام تحصيل در روان پزشکي که آن روزها از روش فرويدي پيروي مي کرد و شروع جنگ جهاني ، «اريک » وارد ارتش آمريکا شد تا به عنوان روان پزشک در ارتش اين کشور خدمت کند .
با پايان يافتن جنگ ، دکتر «برن » به فضاي مطالعاتي بازگشت . او طي اين سال ها ، علاقه ي بسياري به نوآوري در روان شناسي فرويدي داشت و تلاش مي کرد مفاهيم نظريات فرويد را به چالش بکشد . سرانجام «اريک برن » عزم خود را براي ارائه ي نظريه اي جديد ، جزم کرد و بعد از انتشار چند مقاله ، در سال 1958 ، مقاله ي مشهور و تاثيرگذار خود را به عنوان « تحليل رفتار متقابل ، روشي بديع و کارا براي گروه درماني » منتشر نمود .
اين مقاله ، مبنايي بود براي نظريه اي جديد که کم کم با عنوان «تحليل رفتار متقابل » يا به اختصار TA شناخته شد . «اريک برن » که طي ساليان دراز به مطالعه ي رفتار انسان ها پرداخته بود ، به سرعت نظريه اش را توسعه داد تا جايي که کتاب مشهور «بازي ها » که در سال 1964 به چاپ رسيد ، تبديل به يکي از پرفروش ترين کتاب هاي دهه ي 70 گذشت .
سال هاي 1964 تا 1970 ، سال هاي بسيار پرکاري براي « اريک » بود . او طي همين سال ها «انجمن بين المللي تحليل رفتار متقابل » را پايه گذاري کرد که امروزه مهم ترين مرجع براي علاقه مندان اين نظريه است .
سرانجام ، دکتر « اريک برن »در سال 1970 ، ديده از جهان فرو بست .

نظريه ي تحليل رفتار متقابل :
از جمله خصوصيات نظريه ي «اريک برن » استفاده از کلمات ساده و همه فهم براي بيان مقصود است اما استفاده از همين کلمات ساده باعث شد بسياري از روان پزشکان ، با عنوان « روان شناسي عامه » از اين نظريه ياد کنند اما با گذشت زمان و تلاش برخي شاگردان « اريک برن » ، کم کم نظريه ي « تحليل رفتار متقابل » ، از جايگاه خوبي در بين روان شناسان برخوردار شد به طوري که امروزه شاهد گرايش روز افزون روان پزشکان به اين نظريه هستيم . در واقع از سال 1970 تاکنون ، نظريه ي « تحليل رفتار متقابل » ، تغييرات بسياري نموده به طوري که برخي معتقدند اگر « اريک برن » امروز به دنيا بر مي گشت ، بايد از ابتدا اين نظريه را ياد مي گرفت !
« تحليل رفتار متقابل » ، نظريه اي در مورد شخصيت و روش منظمي براي روان درماني به منظور رشد و تغييرات شخصي مي باشد ، از جمله خصوصيات اين نظريه ، اين است که فرآيند درمان ، فرآيندي يک سويه نيست بلکه با کمک اين نظريه ، درمان گر و بيمار هر دو زمان در کار درمان دخيل هستند . در واقع درمان گر ، تنها به بيمار کمک مي کند تا اصول نظريه را درک کند و پس از آن ، اين خود بيمار است که بايد مشکلاتش را کشف و آنها را رفع کند و البته در اين راه ، درمان گر به بيمار کمک خواهد کرد .
اين نظريه راه کارهايي براي درمان هاي فردي ، گروهي ، زوجي و خانوادگي ارائه مي دهد و در عين حال به افراد کمک مي کند تا در ارتباطات خود با ديگران ، آگاهانه از رفتارهاي مخرب پرهيز کنند .

بخش هاي شخصيت انسان :
طبق نظريه ي تحليل رفتار متقابل «اريک برن » ، شخصيت انسان از سه بخش کودک ، والد و بالغ تشکيل شده است .
والد : بخش والد ، تشکيل شده است از رفتارها و نگرش هايي که از پدر و مادر و افراد صاحب قدرت به عاريت گرفته ايم . هر وقت که درصدد نصيحت کردن ديگران برآمديم و همچون يک پدر و مادر مهربان و دلسوز به ارشاد و راهنمايي ديگري اقدام کرديم ، والد درون خود را فعال نموده ايم . مصاديق بيروني والد ، پدر و مادر ، معلمان ، پليس و همه ي افرادي هستند که به گونه اي خود را صاحب فهم و کمالات و قانون گذار مي دانند . والد ما هميشه درصدد اندرز ديگري و صدور دستور بايد و نبايد ، تصميم گيري و بالاخره خدامنشي است .
کودک : کودک ، بخش عاطفي و احساسي درون ما و احساس درباره ي مسائل مختلف زندگي است . وقتي که ما با يک کودک به بازي مي پردازيم و يا در رفتارها و بازي هاي او تامل مي کنيم ، در واقع کودک درون خود را فعال نموده ايم . هنگامي که در جشن تولد يا مهماني شرکت مي کنيم و يا زماني که گريه مي کنيم ، ديگران را دست مي اندازيم و خود را لوس مي کنيم ، کودک درون ما بيدار شده است .
بالغ : بالغ ، جنبه ي منطقي و خردمند شخصيت ماست . بالغ همچون يک کامپيوتر عمل مي کند ؛ اطلاعات را جمع آوري ، پردازش و نتيجه گيري مي کند . بالغ از احساس و عاطفه ، به دور است و فقط طبق واقعيت عمل مي کند . کار اصلي بالغ ، مديريت بخش هاي ديگر است . بالغ ، واسط بين کودک و والد است و در مواقع تصميم گيري و حسابگري درباره ي امور مهم مانند شغل ، تحصيلات ، ازدواج ، سرمايه گذاري و ... ظاهر مي شود .
بحث اصلي « تحليل رفتار متقابل » تعامل بين اين سه گانه يا سه بخش شخصيت انسان است . هر گاه فرد بتواند در مواقع مناسب و ضروري بخش مربوطه را به کار گيرد ، در واقع توانسته است نه تنها با بخش هاي دروني خود بلکه با ديگري نيز در موضع تعامل و سازگاري قرار بگيرد . آسيب رواني ، زماني ايجاد مي شود که يکي از اين سه گانه ، مستبد شود و بر بخش هاي ديگر مسلط شده و نگذارد آنها نقش خود را ايفا کنند .

انواع بازي ها :
« برن » معتقد است همه ي انسان ها برنامه هايي براي آينده ي خود دارند و دست به طرح نقشه هايي مي زنند و طبق آن نقشه ها به زندگي ادامه مي دهند . براي نمونه ممکن است فردي در نقش يک قرباني ظاهر شود و بيش از حد فداکار باشد و يا فردي ستمگر و سلطه گر شود و يا تصميم بگيرد که انساني سرزنده ، با نشاط و موفق باشد . به باور « برن » ، تمام رفتارها و برنامه هاي ما هم چون بازي هاي دوران کودکي است با اين تفاوت که اين قبيل بازي ها ، کمي پيچيده و سناريوهايي از پيش نوشته شده هستند اما بازي هاي دوران کودکي، خودجوش و بدون طرح قبلي صورت مي گيرند ؛ بازي ها ، نشان دهنده ي موضع ما در برابر دنياي بيرون است . همه ي ما بازيگر هستيم و به طور معمول در سه نقش ظاهر مي شويم :
1 ـ من خوبم ـ تو بدي ( بازي برد ـ باخت ) : اين قبيل بازي ها به طور معمول با خودنمايي و خودبرتربيني و تحقير ديگران شروع مي شود و شخص در نقش يک والد همه چيز دان و اندرز دهنده ظاهر مي گردد و يا فردي اقتدارطلب است و يا نسبت به ديگران نفرت دارد و برخوردهاي چکشي مي کند .افرادي که دوران کودکي را در سختي و فشار گذرانده اند و پيوسته از جانب اطرافيان و اعضاي خانواده ، تحت استرس ، سلطه و تحقير بوده اند و از خودمختاري و آزادي عمل کمتري برخوردار بوده و نتوانسته اند از زير فشارهاي وارده ، رهايي يابند ، به طور معمول نفرت شديدي را در وجود خود پرورش داده اند و پيوسته در نقش يک بازيگر خشن و صاحب هيجانات بد و مخرب ظاهر مي شوند ، آرامش خود را در تحقير ديگري مي جويند و مدام به دنبال مقصر و متهم مي گردند .
2 ـ من بدم ـ تو خوبي ( بازي باخت ـ برد ) : اين بازي ، درست عکس بازي مذکور است . شخص در يک موضع انفعالي ظاهر مي شود و خود را کم و ناچيز مي داند . صفت هاي خود را بيش از حد ، بزرگ نمايي مي کند و يا نسبت به آنها آگاهي افراطي دارد ؛ به همين خاطر هميشه از خود ناراضي است ، ديگران را بهتر و برتر از خود به شمار مي آورد ، تنها و گوشه گير است و خود را در رقابت و برابري با ديگران ناتوان مي بيند . اين قبيل افراد ، موضعي منفي و بدبينانه در برابر زندگي دارند ، سناريوهاي خودآزاردهنده اجرا مي کنند ، هميشه در حاشيه هستند و ديگران را وارد متن مسائل مي کنند .
3 ـ من خوبم ـ تو خوبي ( بازي برد ـ برد ) :بازيگران اين سناريو ، افرادي منطقي و روشن فکر هستند . سعي مي کنند در مناسبات انساني ، فردي مثبت و متعارف باشند ؛ هم خودشان را به نيکي ابراز مي کنند و هم به ديگري اجازه ي ابراز وجود مي دهند . آنچه را براي خود نمي پسندند ، براي ديگران نيز لحاظ نمي پسندند .

جملاتي از دکتر اريک برن :
ـ هر کس در اوايل کودکي اش تصميم مي گيرد که چه کسي شود و چگونه بميرد .اين نقشه ، سناريوي زندگي اوست .
ـ آدم هاي واقعي ، خودشان تصميم مي گيرند اما براي آدم هاي پلاستيکي ، فال گيرها .
منبع: مجله ي شادکامي و موفقيت شماره ي 66

 

Brief Biography of Dr. Eric Berne

دکتر اريک برن پدر تحليل رفتار متقابل
 

The following is adapted nearly entirely from information available from the International Transactional Analysis Association.  Small modifications were made with input from Berne family members.
A comprehensive biography of Eric Berne was written 1984.  For information on this book, please refer to the Bibliography page or view this book at Amazon.com
Eric Berne was born May 10, 1910 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, as Leonard Bernstein, the son of David Hiller Bernstein, MD, a general practitioner, and Sarah Gordon Bernstein, a professional writer and editor. His only sibling, his sister Grace, was born five years later. The family immigrated to Canada from Poland and Russia. Both parents graduated from McGill University, and Eric, who was close to his father, spoke fondly of how he accompanied his father, a physician, on medical rounds. Dr. Bernstein died of tuberculosis at age 38. Mrs. Bernstein then supported herself and her two children working as an editor and writer. She encouraged Eric to follow in his father's footsteps and study medicine. He received an M.D. and C.M. (Master of Surgery) from McGill University Medical School in 1935.
Pre-War Years
Eric Berne interned in the United States at Englewood Hospital in New Jersey. In 1936 he began his psychiatric residency at the Psychiatric Clinic of Yale University School of Medicine, where he worked for two years. Some time around 1938-39, Berne became an American citizen and shortened his name from Eric Lennard Bernstein to Eric Berne. His first appointment was as Clinical Assistant in Psychiatry at Mt. Zion Hospital, New York City, a post he held until 1943 when he went into the Army Medical Corps. In 1940 Berne had established a private practice in Norwalk, Connecticut. There he met and married his first wife, Ruth, with whom he had two children, Ellen and Peter [Note that other biographies list Eric's first wife as Elinor. This is incorrect]. From 1940-1943 he also commuted from his Westport home to practice concurrently in New York City. In 1941 he began training as a psychoanalyst at the New York Psychoanalytic Institute and became an analyst of Paul Federn.
Army Medical Corps
Because of the demand for army psychiatrists during World War II, Dr. Eric Berne served from 1943-46 in the AUS Medical Corps, rising from first lieutenant to major. His assignments included Spokane, Washington, Ft. Ord, California and Bingham City, Utah. During the latter two years he practiced group therapy in the psychiatric wards of Bushnell General Hospital. When discharged from the army in 1946, Eric Berne, now divorced, decided to relocate in Carmel, California, an area he had fallen in love with when stationed at nearby Fort Ord. Before the year was out he completed writing The Mind in Action and signed a contract for its publication with Simon and Schuster of New York. That same year he resumed his psychoanalytic training at the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute. In 1947 he became the analyst of Eric Erikson, with whom he worked for two years.
Family Life in California
Soon after beginning analysis with Erikson, Eric Berne met a young divorcee, Dorothy de Mass Way, whom he wanted to marry. Erikson said Eric could not marry until after finishing his didactic analysis, and so it was not until 1949 that Berne and Dorothy exchanged vows and set up home in Carmel. Dorothy brought three children to the marriage, and she and Eric eventually had two sons of their own, Ricky and Terry. Eric Berne loved the pater familias role, relishing in his large group of offspring and tending to be, if anything, overly permissive, a nurturing parent more often than an authoritarian one. However, he also knew how to make time for his writing. He had an isolated study built at the far end of his large garden, well out of earshot of his youngsters. In that study he did most of his writing between 1949 and 1964, when he and Dorothy divorced on the friendliest of terms. During these seminal years in Carmel, Eric kept up a demanding pace. He took an appointment in 1950 as Assistant Psychiatrist at Mt. Zion Hospital, San Francisco, and simultaneously began serving as a Consultant to the Surgeon General of the US Army. In 1951 he added the job of Adjunct and Attending Psychiatrist at the Veterans Administration and Mental Hygiene Clinic, San Francisco. These three appointments were in addition to his private practices in both Carmel and San Francisco.
Break with Psychoanalysis & the Creation of Transactional Analysis
Probably the most significant traces of the origins of transactional analysis are contained in the first five of six articles on intuition Berne wrote beginning in 1949. Already, at that early date, when he was still working to gain the status of psychoanalyst, he dared to defy Freudian concepts of the unconscious in his writings. When he began training in 1941 at the New York Psychoanalytic Institute, and later when he resumed his training at the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute, Eric Berne obviously believed that becoming a psychoanalyst was important. However, in the end that coveted title was withheld; his 1956 application for membership was turned down with the verdict that he wasn't ready, but, perhaps after three or four more years of personal analysis and training he might reapply. For Eric the rejection was galvanizing, spurring him to intensify his long-standing ambition to add something new to psychoanalysis. He set to work, determined to develop a new approach to psychotherapy by himself. Before 1956 was out, he had written two seminal papers based on material read earlier that year at the Psychiatric Clinic, Mt. Zion Hospital, San Francisco, and at the Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Clinic, U.C. Medical School: "Intuition V: The Ego Image": and "Ego States in Psychotherapy." Using references to P. Federn, E. Kann, and H. Silberer, in the first article Berne indicated how he arrived at the concept of ego states and where he got the idea of separating "adult" from "child." In the next article he developed the tripartite scheme used today (Parent, Adult, and Child), introduced the three-circle method of diagramming it, showed how to sketch contaminations, labeled the theory, "structural analysis" and termed it "a new psychotherapeutic approach." The third article, titled "Transactional Analysis: A New and Effective Method of Group Therapy," was written a few months later and presented by invitation at the 1957 Western Regional Meeting of the American Group Psychotherapy Association of Los Angeles. With the publication of this paper in the 1958 issue of the American Journal of Psychotherapy, transactional analysis, the name of Berne's new method of diagnosis and treatment, became a permanent part of the psychotherapeutic literature. In addition to restating his concepts of P-A-C, structural analysis, and ego states, the 1957 paper added the important new features of games and scripts. Berne went on to publish Games People Play in 1964 where he introduced games and Transactional Analysis to a more widespread audience.
The Seminars
From the beginning, Eric Berne used his regular Thursday evening clinical seminars in Monterey as a testing ground for his new theory and methods. In 1950-51 he began a Tuesday evening seminar in San Francisco; this became incorporated in February 1958 as the San Francisco Social Psychiatry Seminars in order to handle funds required for the publication of the Transactional Analysis Bulletin, which first appeared in January 1962 with Berne as editor. In 1964 Berne and his San Francisco and Monterey seminar colleagues decided to create a Transactional Analysis Association, naming it the International Transactional Analysis Association in recognition of the growing number of Transactional Analysis professionals outside the USA. The new organization was designated successor to the San Francisco Social Psychiatry Seminars, and the San Francisco seminar changed its name to the San Francisco Transactional Analysis Seminar in recognition of the fact that it was only one of the many branches of the ITAA.
The Last Years
The years from 1964 to 1970 were restless ones for Berne. After his second divorce his personal life became chaotic as he longed to find another mate. His frustration in this area led him to work longer hours at his writing, but when he did remarry Torre Peterson in 1967, he did not give up any of his increasingly complex writing commitments. By early 1970 he was once again divorced. In June, 1970, Berne suffered the first of two heart attacks. A few weeks before the first heart attack, on May 10, his 60th birthday, Berne had told his friends how well he felt. He had just sent his manuscript of What Do You Say After You Say Hello to Grove Press, and was pleased about how it had turned out. He actually allowed himself some weekends of pure play, with no writing. However, on June 26, he suffered sharp pains that went through his chest and back which turned out to be caused by a heart attack. He was hospitalized and was making a slow recovery but three weeks later, while working on the galleys of What Do You Say After You Say Hello in his hospital bed, he suffered another heart attack this time a massive one, which caused his death. Eric died on July 15, 1970. Eric Berne is buried at the El Carmelo Cemetery in Pacific Grove, California.  Pictures and information on his gravesite can be found here.
Eric's Offsping
Eric had two children with his first wife, Ruth Manning. They are Ellen and Peter. Eric had two children with his second wife Dorothy (Terry and Ricky) and two stepchildren (Robin and Janice). Ellen Berne is now deceased and was a library director in Boston, Massachusetts. Peter Berne lives in Berlin and is an accomplished musician and opera coach. Ricky Berne lives in Alaska and is a retired pilot from America West. Terry Berne lives in Madrid and is a writer.
Eric ended up with only 2 blood grandchildren. Both are children of his daughter Ellen. Anna Calcaterra lives in Atlanta. Nicholas Berne Calcaterra is a dentist and practices dentistry in West Hartford, CT.
http://www.ericberne.com/Eric_Berne_Biography.htm

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